Nicholas J. Talley, M.D., Ph.D., F.A.C.G.,1 Nimish Vakil, M.D., F.A.C.G.,2 and the Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology
1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; and 2University of Wisconsin Medical School and Marquette University College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Dyspepsia is a chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen; patients with predominant or frequent (more than once a week) heartburn or acid regurgitation, should be considered to have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) until proven otherwise. Dyspeptic patients over 55 yr of age, or those with alarm features should undergo prompt esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). In all other patients, there are two approximately equivalent options: (i) test and treat for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) using a validated noninvasive test and a trial of acid suppression if eradication is successful but symptoms do not resolve or (ii) an empiric trial of acid suppression with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 4–8 wk. The test-and-treat option is preferable in populations with a moderate to high prevalence of H. pylori infection (>=10%); empirical PPI is an initial option in low prevalence situations. If initial acid suppression fails after 2–4 wk, it is reasonable to consider changing drug class or dosing. If the patient fails to respond or relapses rapidly on stopping antisecretory therapy, then the test-and-treat strategy is best applied before consideration of referral for EGD. Prokinetics are not currently recommended as first-line therapy for uninvestigated dyspepsia. EGD is not mandatory in those who remain symptomatic as the yield is low; the decision to endoscope or not must be based on clinical judgement. In patients who do respond to initial therapy, stop treatment after 4–8 wk; if symptoms recur, another course of the same treatment is justified. The management of functional dyspepsia is challenging when initial antisecretory therapy and H. pylori eradication fails. There are very limited data to support the use of low-dose tricyclic antidepressants or psychological treatments in functional dyspepsia.
Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:2324–2337
Received February 18, 2005; accepted May 23, 2005.
Reprint requests and correspondence: Nicholas J. Talley, M.D., Ph.D., Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street S.W., PL6–56, Rochester, MN 55905.
These and the previous guidelines were developed under the auspices of the American College of Gastroenterology and its Practice Parameters Committee and approved by the Board of Trustees. The world literature was reviewed extensively using the National Library of Medicine database. Appropriate studies were reviewed and any additional studies found in the reference list of these papers were obtained and reviewed. Evidence was evaluated along a hierarchy, with randomized, controlled trials given the greatest weight. Abstracts presented at national and international meetings were only used when unique data from ongoing trials were presented. When scientific data were lacking, recommendations were based on expert consensus obtained from both the literature and the experience of the authors and the Practice Parameters Committee. Each guideline was evaluated by the committee and the strength of evidence to guide clinical practice was assessed using established criteria (Table 1).
|I||Evidence from RCTs with low false positive rates (i.e.,
significant p values), adequate sample sizes (low likelihood
of type II errors) and appropriate methodology (low
likelihood of type I errors)
|II||Evidence from RCTs with high false positive rates,
inadequate sample sizes, or inappropriate methodology
|III||Evidence from nonrandomized trials using a
contemporaneous cohort of controls
|IV||Evidence from nonrandomized trials using a historical cohort
|V||Evidence from case series without controls|
|Note: Adapted from Cook D et al. Chest 1992;102:305S.|
|Grade||Strength of Evidence to Guide Clinical Practice|
|A||Supported by two or more level I studies without conflicting evidence from other level I studies|
|B||Supported by two or more level I studies with conflicting evidence from other level I studies or supported by only one level I or two or more level II studies|
|C||Supported by level III–V evidence|
|Note: Adapted from Guyatt GH et al. JAMA 1995;274:1800–1804; Users Guides to the Medical Literature, JAMA Press 2001; and Cook D et al. Chest 1992;102:305S.|
Dyspepsia is defined as chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen. Discomfort is defined as a subjective negative feeling that is nonpainful, and can incorporate a variety of symptoms including early satiety or upper abdominal fullness. Patients presenting with predominant or frequent (more than once a week) heartburn or acid regurgitation should be considered to have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) until proven otherwise.
Dyspepsia is a common complaint in clinical practice; therefore, its management should be based on the best evidence. Dyspepsia has often been loosely defined; the most widely applied definition of dyspepsia is the Rome Working Teams formulation, namely chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen (1). Predominant epigastric pain or discomfort helps to distinguish dyspepsia from GERD; in the latter the dominant complaint is typically heartburn or acid regurgitation but there may be a distinct epigastric component that is confusing (2). Frequent reflux symptoms (twice a week or more) probably impair quality of life and are generally considered to identify GERD until proven otherwise (3–6). Clinical trials in dyspepsia have used various definitions and have often not distinguished obvious GERD from dyspepsia, making interpretation of treatment responses problematic.
Discomfort has been defined by the Rome Working Teams as a subjective negative feeling that is nonpainful, and has been considered to incorporate a variety of symptoms including early satiety, bloating, upper abdominal fullness, or nausea (1). However, bloating is most typically a symptom of IBS and may not be located in the upper abdomen exclusively. Nausea can be secondary to a variety of nonabdominal conditions. Hence, neither bloating nor nausea alone should be considered to identify dyspepsia. Belching alone is also an insufficient symptom to identify dyspepsia and can be secondary to air swallowing, although it is commonly present with epigastric pain or discomfort. Acute self-limited dyspepsia generally requires no investigation and will not be further considered here in these management guidelines.
Epidemiology of Dyspepsia
It is established that dyspepsia is a common problem worldwide. In the United States, the point prevalence is approximately 25%, excluding those people who have typical GERD symptoms (7). The prevalence is lower if patients with any symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation are excluded (8). The incidence is more poorly documented. In the United States, approximately 9% of people who had no symptoms of dyspepsia anually in the prior year reported new symptoms on follow-up; however, those with a past history of dyspepsia or peptic ulcer were not excluded and hence the onset-rate may be exaggerated (9). In Scandinavia, an incidence rate of less than 1% over 3 months has been reported (10). Whatever the incidence, the number of subjects who develop dyspepsia is matched by a similar number of subjects who lose their symptoms, explaining the observation that the prevalence remains stable.
Natural History and Costs of Dyspepsia
Dyspepsia is usually a chronic condition in primary and secondary care. The costs in the United States remain poorly documented, but in Sweden a total societal cost of $63 per adult was calculated for dyspepsia (including reflux disease) (11). In another study, 288 adult primary care patients with dyspepsia were followed up for 1 yr; dyspepsia patients tended to remain symptomatic with 61% using drugs and 43% having gastrointestinal procedures, indicating intensive use of medical resources (12).
Dyspeptic patients more than 55 yr old, or those with alarm features (bleeding, anemia, early satiety, unexplained weight loss (>10% body weight), progressive dysphagia, odynophagia, persistent vomiting, a family history of gastrointestinal cancer, previous esophagogastric malignancy, previous documented peptic ulcer, lymphadenopathy, or an abdominal mass) should undergo prompt endoscopy to rule out peptic ulcer disease, esophagogastric malignancy, and other rare upper gastrointestinal tract disease.
In patients aged 55 yr or younger with no alarm features, the clinician may consider two approximately equivalent management options: (i) test and treat for H. pylori using a validated noninvasive test and a trial of acid suppression if eradication is successful but symptoms do not resolve or (ii) an empiric trial of acid suppression with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 4–8 wk. The test-and-treat option is preferable in populations with a moderate to high prevalence of H. pylori infection (>=10%), whereas the empirical PPI strategy is preferable in low prevalence situations.
Some anxious patients may need the reassurance afforded by endoscopy. On the other hand, repeat EGD is not recommended once a firm diagnosis of functional dyspepsia has been made, unless completely new symptoms or alarm features develop. Repeat EGD is otherwise unlikely to ever be cost-effective.
Grades of evidence:
Early endoscopy for alarm symptoms: C
Test-and-treat strategy for H. pylori: A
Acid suppression therapy: A
Reassurance after endoscopy: C
Very few studies have investigated dyspepsia subjects from the community by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and other tests, to determine the underlying causes of the symptoms. In a population-based study from northern Norway, amongst those with epigastric pain only 9% had a peptic ulcer and 14% had reflux esophagitis, but how many had endoscopy negative reflux disease is uncertain (13). In a comparable study from northern Sweden, a similar proportion of subjects had peptic ulcer or esophagitis, although 32% with esophagitis were asymptomatic (14). Many people with dyspepsia presenting to primary care have no obvious cause for their symptoms based on EGD. The most common finding in North America is probably esophagitis; in a Canadian study of uninvestigated dyspepsia in primary care, 43% of 1,040 patients had erosive esophagitis and only 5% a peptic ulcer, but this study did include patients with heartburn (15). Studies from open-access endoscopy practices and outpatient series support the view that only a minority of patients presenting with dyspepsia have peptic ulcer disease or reflux esophagitis, and gastric cancer is relatively rare in western populations (16, 17).
Additional diagnostic testing over and above EGD has a low yield in dyspepsia, at least in primary care. Studies applying abdominal ultrasonography in dyspepsia have reported few abnormalities aside from asymptomatic cholelithiasis that needs no intervention (18, 19). Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has been reported to have a higher yield of identifying pancreatico-biliary pathology but selection bias may explain the observation and much of the pathology identified is of questionable significance (20, 21). Twenty-four hour esophageal pH testing can identify pathological acid reflux in approximately 20% of patients with a clinical and endoscopic diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (22–25). However, the symptom criteria used to define functional dyspepsia in these studies have generally been broader than recommended by the Rome Committees, and hence patients with typical reflux symptoms contaminated the studies. Klauser et al. extensively evaluated a group of patients with functional dyspepsia; they reported that 47% had abnormal findings on additional testing but the significance of the various abnormalities identified, including minor delays in gastric emptying and lactose intolerance remains questionable (22). Depending on the background prevalence of H. pylori, this infection will be identified in 20–60% of patients with functional dyspepsia, but the clinical relevance in most cases is uncertain; hence, these patients are not excluded from the functional dyspepsia diagnosis category (26).
Pathophysiological Disturbances in Endoscopy-Negative (Functional) Dyspepsia
Approximately 40% of patients with functional dyspepsia have delayed gastric emptying (27). However, it is controversial whether a specific symptom profile is associated with delayed gastric emptying, and whether changes in gastric emptying can predict symptom improvement in functional dyspepsia. Stanghellini et al. in 343 Italian patients reported that delayed gastric emptying was significantly more frequent in patients characterized by female sex, low body weight, presence of relevant and severe postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting, and absence of severe epigastric pain; female sex, relevant and severe postprandial fullness, and severe vomiting were independently associated with delayed gastric emptying of solids (28). In a separate study of 483 patients, the same Italian group identified distinct subgroups based on predominant symptoms and gastric emptying; one was characterized by predominant epigastric pain, male gender and normal gastric emptying, and a second by predominant nonpainful symptoms, female gender, and a high frequency of associated irritable bowel syndrome and delayed gastric emptying (29). Sarnelli et al. also reported that delayed gastric emptying was associated with postprandial fullness and vomiting (30). Other studies, however, have failed to identify a definite symptom profile associated with delayed gastric emptying suggesting there is not a simple association (31). Moreover, evidence that a gastric emptying test cost-effectively alters management is not available.
There is evidence that the stomach and other regions of the gut including the duodenum and esophagus are hypersensitive to distention in functional dyspepsia, although this applies only in a subgroup (32–36). Tack et al. recently reported in 160 patients with functional dyspepsia that one third had gastric hypersensitivity and this abnormality was associated with increased postprandial pain as well as belching and weight loss, but confirmatory data are needed on the symptom associations (35).
In a barostat study, Tack et al. studied patients with functional dyspepsia; impaired gastric accommodation to a meal (a “stiff fundus”) was found in 40%, and this abnormality was associated with early satiety and weight loss but not with hypersensitivity to gastric distention, presence of H. pylori, or delayed gastric emptying (37). However, Boeckxstaens et al. failed to replicate these findings; while postprandial symptoms were more often evoked with a meal in functional dyspepsia, there was no clear symptom profile that was associated with a failure of fundic relaxation (38). Noninvasive testing is available to assess abnormal fundic accommodation including gastric ultrasound, SPECT, and MRI, but the clinical relevance of identifying this abnormality remains in some dispute in terms of defining therapeutic interventions (39).
New clinical tests of gastric function are under evaluation. The water-load test and nutrient-load test may help identify gastric dysfunction in clinical practice (40, 41). These represent simple tests of the ability of a patient to drink water or a nutrient load such as Ensure® until they feel completely full. Dyspepsia patients tolerate lower volumes than controls for example, and have more symptoms 30 min after reaching satiation. Hence, this is a stomach “stress test” and can objectively quantify postprandial distress. However, normal cutoffs vary by laboratory (as do test protocols), and the rate of gastric emptying of the nutrient meal as well as relaxation of the fundus secondary to meal ingestion can potentially modulate the test results. Some have found that the drink tests correlate with fundic dysaccommodation rather than visceral hypersensitivity (42). Others have failed to demonstrate a relationship to gastric dysfunction while some data suggest these tests correlate with psychological disturbances (40, 41). Currently, patients with gastroduodenal motility disturbances, gastroduodenal hypersensitivity, or other pathophysiological abnormalities of uncertain relevance are not excluded from the functional dyspepsia umbrella.
Symptoms and Symptom Subgroups
There is convincing evidence that a patients symptoms cannot be used to identify structural disease in uninvestigated dyspepsia (15, 43). Working teams have suggested subdividing dyspepsia into ulcer-like or dysmotility-like dyspepsia based on symptom patterns or predominance; it was postulated that symptom subgroups could identify more homogenous populations that would respond to targeted medical therapy (1, 7). However, individual symptoms, symptom subgroups, and scoring systems have all failed to be useful in identifying underlying peptic ulcer disease, or distinguishing organic from functional dyspepsia. A study from Canada reported that the patient’s dominant symptom (including heartburn) failed to predict endoscopic findings in a primary care population (15). It is thus controversial whether subdividing dyspepsia into symptom subgroups aids management in documented functional dyspepsia.
Alarm Features and Identification of Structural Disease in Uninvestigated Dyspepsia
The risk of malignancy increases with age and therefore empirical therapy is not currently recommended in individuals over 55 yr of age who develop new dyspeptic symptoms.
Grade of evidence: C
New-onset dyspepsia in older age is an alarm feature or red flag. The American College of Physicians in 1985 published a guideline recommending that patients who were over the age of 45 deserved referral for prompt endoscopy to rule out underlying malignancy, as gastric cancer is very rare in the United States below the age of 45 yr although it increases thereafter (44). Some studies have reported that older age is an independent risk factor for identifying underlying structural abnormalities, but the results have been inconsistent (45, 46). The optimal age threshold for endoscopy is unclear but 55 yr (rather than 45 yr) seems a reasonable cut-off because cancer is rare in younger patients in the United States, but no age threshold is absolute (47).
Several other alarm features have been traditionally applied to try and identify serious underlying disease in dyspepsia, especially malignancy. These include unexplained weight loss, anorexia, early satiety, vomiting, progressive dysphagia, odynophagia, bleeding, anemia, jaundice, an abdominal mass, lymphadenopathy, a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer, or a history of peptic ulcer, previous gastric surgery or malignancy. Upper gastrointestinal malignancy is rarely present in young patients without alarm features, but the positive predictive value of alarm features remains very poor (47, 48). A long history of symptoms in patients should make cancer unlikely but a symptom duration threshold has not been defined in the literature. Use of antisecretory therapy can mask a cancer at endoscopy (49) but does not appear to alter the outcome (50).
Although alarm symptoms are not specific for a serious underlying disorder, few patients younger than 55 yr of age with an upper gastrointestinal malignancy present without alarm symptoms. In patients with alarm features, and in older patients >55 yr of age with new symptoms, prompt EGD is considered the gold standard to ensure that malignancy has not been missed. There are regions in the United States of high cancer incidence where lower age thresholds may need to be considered such as Alaska (51). On the basis of expert opinion, if an EGD has already been done recently, repeating this test is highly unlikely to alter management.
The patient who presents with new onset dyspepsia or because of chronic symptoms needs an appropriate, evidence-based clinical evaluation. The physician generally wishes to ascertain the likely cause of the symptoms and exclude underlying serious structural disease. However, the patient may actually be presenting not necessarily because of the symptoms per se but because of a fear of serious disease or recent psychological distress. It is reasonable that the physician identify and address such issues as fear of cancer or underlying heart disease in order to optimize management (52).
The patient requiring major reassurance needs to be differently managed than one who does not have such concerns, but fear of serious disease probably explains only some health care seeking behavior (53). The physician also needs to decide whether pharmacological therapy is required, including which drug and for how long. This in turn depends on the underlying provisional diagnosis, which may need to be refined after the patient has initially had a trial of therapy.
Management Options in Younger Patients with No Alarm Features
A number of management options are available to the clinician in younger patients with no alarm features with uninvestigated dyspepsia. A wait-and-see strategy of patient reassurance and education, with use of over-the-counter antacids, H2-blockers, or PPIs and reevaluation can be considered, particularly in primary care. Another strategy worth considering is prescription of empirical full-dose or high-dose antisecretory therapy, reserving further evaluation for those who are either unresponsive or have an early symptomatic relapse after ceasing medication. Empiric antisecretory therapy was the backbone of the guideline proposed by the American College of Physicians and is still widely applied in practice (44). A third approach applies H. pylori test-and-treat as the initial strategy, currently most widely recommended around the world (54, 55). Here, young patients without alarm features are tested for H. pylori infection. If H. pylori is detected, empiric antibiotic therapy is prescribed in an attempt to eradicate the infection; H. pylori-negative patients are treated with empiric antisecretory therapy initially. A modification of the H. pylori test-and-treat strategy is to either prescribe empiric antisecretory therapy first and reserve H. pylori testing later for failures, or apply empiric antisecretory therapy after H. pylori eradication fails to relieve symptoms. A final approach is to perform prompt EGD for all patients with dyspepsia. The best option remains under debate, but new data are available to help guide a rational decision.
Test-and-Treat H. pylori
The application of a test-and-treat strategy for H. pylori should be based on the practice setting (Fig. 1). High-prevalence populations in the United States (e.g., recent immigrants from developing countries) should undergo test-and-treat as the preferable nonendoscopic strategy. Conversely, in communities where gastric or esophageal cancer has a high incidence, prompt endoscopy should be considered early but this would not apply to most of the country. In low-prevalence populations (e.g., high socioeconomic areas, where the background prevalence of ulcer or H. pylori infection is low), an alternative strategy is to prescribe first a course of antisecretory therapy empirically for 4–8 wk. If the patient fails to respond or relapses rapidly on stopping antisecretory therapy, then the test-and-treat strategy is best applied before consideration of referral for EGD. EGD is not mandatory in those who remain symptomatic as the yield is low; the decision to endoscope or not must be based on clinical judgement.
Grade of evidence for test-and-treat or acid suppression: A
Grade of evidence for a H. pylori prevalence of less than 10% in the local community as the cutoff for deciding to use empiric acid suppression rather than test-and-treat: C
The rationale for noninvasive H. pylori testing is the identification of underlying peptic ulcer disease. For example, in Scotland where the incidence of peptic ulcer is high, McColl et al. showed that in patients with dyspepsia and a positive C13 urea breath test had a duodenal ulcer (DU) in 40% and gastric ulcer (GU) in 13%; those who were breath test negative had a DU in 2% and GU in 3% (56). Other studies suggest that between 20% and 60% of patients with dyspepsia who are H. pylori infected will have underlying peptic ulcer disease, but this varies widely depending upon the background incidence of peptic ulcer (57, 58). Cost-effectiveness studies in the United States suggest that when the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with functional dyspepsia is less than 12% or when the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer disease is less than 48%, initial empirical treatment with a PPI is preferable (59). Others have suggested that when H. pylori infection decreases below 20%, empiric PPI therapy starts to dominate test-and-treat in uninvestigated dyspepsia (60).
Figure 1. Algorithm for the management of uninvestigated
Test-and-Treat H. pylori Versus Placebo in Dyspepsia in the Community
There are data indicating a small benefit for treating H. pylori empirically in those with the infection in the community (nonpatients). In a U.K. community trial, 32,929 individuals were invited and 8,455 attended and were eligible; 2,329 were positive for H. pylori and were assigned active treatment or placebo, with 1,773 (76%) returning at 2 yr (61). There was an absolute risk reduction of 5% for upper GI symptoms on active therapy versus placebo, although quality of life was unchanged. Presumably much of this benefit is explained by the treatment of undiagnosed peptic ulcer disease.
Test-and-Treat H. pylori Versus Usual Management of Uninvestigated Dyspepsia in Primary Care
Chiba et al. conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 36 family practices in Canada; they randomized 294 H. pylori-positive patients to omeprazole plus antibiotics or omeprazole plus placebo for 1 wk, and then arranged follow-up by family physicians for usual care (62). They found eradication resulted in no or minimal symptoms in 50% of patients compared to 36% in the placebo-therapy arm at the end of 12 months. It is of interest that this benefit was observed despite including some GERD patients in this trial. The eradication therapy arm also reduced costs by Can$53 per patient. Allison et al. in a study in primary care in the United States observed no cost benefit of test-and-treat over usual care although symptoms were significantly reduced in the test-andtreat arm (63). An underpowered U.S. study failed to detect a difference between test-and-treat and usual care (64).
Test-and-Treat H. pylori Versus Prompt EGD in Primary and Secondary Care
There is consistent empiric evidence that a test-and-treat strategy is at least equivalent to prompt endoscopy in terms of outcomes. Lassen et al. randomized 500 patients (including older patients) in primary care with dyspepsia to either H. pylori test-and-treat or prompt endoscopy (65). They found that there were no differences in symptomatic outcomes or quality of life between the groups at 1 yr, although the endoscopy group had a slightly higher patient satisfaction score of questionable clinical significance. The authors also identified a reduction in the number of endoscopic procedures performed in the test-and-treat arm. Heaney et al. in Ireland evaluated dyspepsia patients less than 45 yr old referred to an open-access endoscopy unit who were H. pylori-positive on noninvasive testing (66). Patients here were randomized to either empiric H. pylori therapy or immediate EGD. They found that more patients became symptom free in the H. pylori eradication arm than in the prompt endoscopy arm. McColl et al. evaluated 708 patients under age 55 yr referred for endoscopy; these patients were randomized to either H. pylori test-and-treat or endoscopy including H. pylori testing (67). They found no significant difference in dyspepsia score at the 12 months follow-up in the two groups. Furthermore, only 8% of patients who had testing and treatment eventually underwent endoscopy; overall patient satisfaction and quality of life was similar in both groups. Jones et al. evaluated 232 patients in primary care, of whom 141 underwent testing and treatment for H. pylori; 91who had previously undergone endoscopy comprised the control group (68). Although not a randomized controlled trial, they identified similar clinical outcomes but lower costs in the test-and-treat group at 1yr. Because this was a retrospective, unmatched nonconsecutive controlled study, the results are difficult to interpret. Additional randomized trial data (69) and a Cochrane metaanalysis (70) suggest overall that prompt EGD and test-andtreat have similar efficacy.
Other evidence supports the view that H. pylori testing may provide adequate patient reassurance. Patel et al. evaluated 193 dyspepsia patients under the age of 45 yr (71). Seventy of these patients were H. pylori-seronegative without alarm features, 90 were seropositive for H. pylori and 23 had alarm features; the H. pylori-positive patients and those with alarm features underwent prompt endoscopy. No difference in outcome or satisfaction was detected between the groups in follow up after referral back to their primary care physician.
Disadvantages of Test-and-Treat
A notable disadvantage of test-and-treat is that cure of H. pylori infection will only lead to a minority reporting symptom improvement, as demonstrated in the above management trials, and this can be confusing to the clinician (60–65). However, endoscopy and targeted medical therapy does no better. Indeed, eradication of H. pylori infection does not relieve symptoms in all patients with peptic ulcer disease, with at least one third continuing to be symptomatic (72, 73).
The choice of the H. pylori test is critical. Many serological tests have not been locally validated, and have suboptimal sensitivity and specificity in practice (74). The urea breath test and stool antigen test are currently the most accurate noninvasive diagnostic tools and can be used with confidence (75, 76). The value of noninvasive H. pylori testing, even if a local evaluated test is applied, still depends on the positive and negative predictive value, which in turn is related to the background prevalence of H. pylori infection. When H. pylori is very uncommon, a positive test is more likely to be a false positive. Where H. pylori infection is highly prevalent, a negative result is more likely to be a false negative (77). Cost-effectiveness studies suggest that the stool test and the urea breath test that detect active infection are preferable to serological tests in the United States (78, 79).
The current treatment of choice for H. pylori infected patients is a combination of PPI (standard dose twice daily) with amoxicillin (1 g twice daily) and clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) administered for 7–10 days (7-day therapy is approved with rabeprazole; 10-day therapy is approved with lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole). Metronidazole (400 mg twice daily) may be substituted for amoxicillin in this regimen if the patient is allergic to penicillin. An alternative strategy is the combination of Bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline (Bismuth subsalicylate [Pepto Bismol®] 525 mg QID + metronidazole 250 mg QID + tetracycline 500 mg QID) combined with a PPI for 14 days (80, 81).
A final issue relates to potential complications of therapy. Antibiotic allergies and super-infection can occur. It is controversial whether eradication of H. pylori infection increases the risk of development of reflux esophagitis or reflux symptoms (82, 83). However, it appears likely that this risk is only present in those with a predisposition to GERD who also have severe gastritis in the body or fundus that impairs acid secretion, which is reversed with H. pylori eradication; this is likely to be uncommon in most of the United States (84). Hence, this issue while much discussed should not be a major clinical concern when contemplating test-and-treat, unless convincing data to the contrary arise. Progression of H. pylori gastritis may occur on acid suppression, and some have suggested H. pylori eradication should be considered for all patients requiring long-term acid suppression, which seems reasonable (85, 86). An unresolved issue is whether test-and-treat will widen the problem of community acquired antibiotic resistance.
Advantages of Prompt Endoscopy
There is empiric evidence from a management trial of prompt endoscopy in older patients that this is the strategy of first choice. Delaney et al. evaluated the cost-effectiveness of an initial endoscopy compared with usual management in patients with dyspepsia over the age of 50 presenting in primary care (87). A total of 422 patients were randomly assigned to either usual care or initial endoscopy; the initial endoscopy arm showed significant improvement in symptom scores and quality of life as well as a 48% reduction in the use of PPIs. Hence, initial endoscopy in older patients with dyspepsia at least in this U.K. study was potentially cost-effective provided the cost of EGD was low. The cost-effectiveness of endoscopy in older people in the U.S. setting needs investigation.
There is only limited and unconvincing evidence that endoscopy leads to improved patient satisfaction scores in dyspepsia. Bytzer el al. conducted a randomized trial comparing prompt endoscopy with empiric H2-receptive blocker therapy in dyspepsia (88). They found there was significant improvement in satisfaction scores at one month after endoscopy compared to the empiric antisecretory therapy arm. In addition, 66% of the patients in the empiric therapy arm eventually underwent endoscopy during the 12 months of follow-up. However, this unblinded study may have been biased by patient and physician expectation that endoscopy is the preferred management strategy, and H. pylori status was not considered. Other studies have suggested that patients with dyspepsia are reassured by EGD and may require fewer prescriptions, although the duration of reassurance is not established (89–91).
Dyspeptic patients who seek medical attention are more concerned about the possible seriousness of their symptoms and are more likely to be concerned about underlying cancer (92). Health anxiety has been shown to lead to a cycle of repeated medical consultations. In a study of primary care patients undergoing open-access endoscopy, Hungin et al. demonstrated that consultations for dyspepsia fell by 57% in patients with normal endoscopy and by 37% in patients with minor abnormalities at endoscopy. In 60% of patients with normal endoscopy, medication use was terminated or decreased (93). Quadri and Vakil demonstrated that one third of patients referred for open-access endoscopy for dyspepsia in the United States had high levels of health related anxiety; following a normal endoscopy or the demonstration of minor abnormalities, and reassurance by the endoscopist, scales for preoccupation with health and fear of illness and death showed significant improvement after endoscopy, and the effects were preserved for 6 months (86).
Disadvantages of Endoscopy
There are several potential disadvantages of prompt endoscopy for all dyspeptic patients that need to be carefully considered. Endoscopy is invasive and although the risks of this procedure in relatively healthy patients are very low, the issue of the risk-benefit ratio needs careful weighing, particularly as the procedure is very unlikely to identify an unexpected structural cause in a young patient with no alarm features. Finding esophagitis, the most likely structural abnormality, may often not lead to a change in management (94, 95). Moreover, the high prevalence of dyspepsia means that a general recommendation to perform endoscopies on all patients would be very costly and would overwhelm endoscopy services. Furthermore, it is contentious that prompt EGD provides any direct benefits despite some positive studies quoted above. One study evaluated management strategies in 326 primary care patients with dyspepsia; endoscopy was not superior to any of the empirical treatment strategies utilized in this study (96). A systematic review concluded that most data failed to support the view that endoscopy alone improves patient outcome in dyspepsia compared with other empiric strategies (97).
Empiric Antisecretory Therapy in Uninvestigated Dyspepsia
In H. pylori-negative cases with uninvestigated dyspepsia and no alarm features, an empiric trial of acid suppression for 4–8 wk is recommended first-line therapy (Fig. 1).
Grade of evidence: A
If initial acid suppression fails after 2–4 wk, it is reasonable to step up therapy, although this is based on expert opinion only; this may require changing drug class or dosing. In the absence of established prokinetic drugs for dyspepsia in the United States, this drug class is not currently recommended as first-line therapy for dyspepsia in the United States.
Grade of evidence: C
In patients who do respond to initial therapy, it is recommended that treatment be stopped after 4–8 wk and if symptoms recur, another course of the same treatment is justified. There are no data on long-term self-directed therapy in this condition, although this may be worth considering in some patients.
Grade of evidence: C
The American College of Physicians in 1985 recommended an empiric trial of an H2 receptor antagonist for 6–8 wk; those who relapsed after therapy or those who failed to respond to therapy in 7–10 days were to be referred for endoscopy (44). The widespread availability of PPIs has resulted in this class of agents frequently being prescribed as initial empiric therapy in uninvestigated dyspepsia in place of H2 receptor antagonists (98).
A meta-analysis of several large studies has demonstrated a short course of PPI therapy compared with a H2-receptor antagonist, alginate, or placebo in primary care provides better symptomatic outcomes (70). However, these studies frequently included patients with symptomatic reflux disease and did not exclude peptic ulcer. It is unknown whether GERD or ulcer disease, or both, accounts for the apparent short-term benefits of empiric therapy in these reports.
There are limited data that prokinetic therapy employed as an empiric strategy may be efficacious in uninvestigated dyspepsia. Kearney et al. noted no significant difference in the severity of dyspeptic symptoms among 60 patients randomized to receive cisapride as compared to placebo in the setting of uninvestigated dyspepsia and negative H. pylori-serology (99). Quartero et al. conducted a trial in primary care of 563 patients who were randomized to ranitidine or cisapride; treatment success was similar in both groups but was under 50%, and the relapse-free periods were also similar with both drugs (100). A randomized trial in H. pylori-negative dyspepsia from Canada demonstrated that cisapride had low efficacy and was inferior to acid suppression (101). Moreover, cisapride is no longer available because of rare toxicity from QTC prolongation and sudden death. There have been no trials of metoclopramide, tegaserod or domperidone in the management of uninvestigated dyspepsia.
Obvious disadvantages of empiric antisecretory therapy include the concern that peptic ulcer disease will be inappropriately and inadequately treated, and patients subsequently may present with complicated ulcer disease if for any reason the therapy is ceased. Antisecretory therapy can also lead to misdiagnosis of peptic ulcer disease at subsequent endoscopy, as the ulcer will more likely heal and be missed. The impact of acid rebound in dyspepsia remains unclear (102). Empiric antisecretory therapy may lead to long-term inappropriate maintenance therapy that the patient does not require. It is unclear whether antisecretory therapy postpones eventual investigation or not, which in turn impacts on its potential cost-effectiveness.
H. pylori Test-and-Treat Versus Empiric Antisecretory Therapy
There are only very limited data comparing empiric H. pylori treatment versus empiric PPI therapy. Manes et al. compared test-and-treat with PPI therapy for a month with 12 months of follow-up in a secondary care setting in Italy (103). In the test-and-treat arm, 56% were eventually endoscoped because of poor symptom control, but none had a peptic ulcer; in the PPI arm, 88% were endoscoped and 17% had a peptic ulcer, but most (88%) were infected with H. pylori. More studies are needed, but these data suggest that in H. pyloripositive dyspeptic patients, empiric PPI therapy is not the management option of choice in areas where the prevalence of H. pylori is high.
Economic Models of Dyspepsia Management
Fendrick et al. undertook economic modeling of management strategies in patient with suspected peptic ulcer disease, which presumably applies to the majority of patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia (104). They found that an initial strategy of H. pylori testing and treatment was cost-effective, unless the cost of endoscopy fell to less than $500 when prompt endoscopy became more cost-effective. Sonnenberg noted that if the ulcer disease prevalence rate exceeded 10% in H. pylori-infected subjects, then a noninvasive strategy based on serological testing became cost-effective (105). Silverstein el al. concluded that there was a toss up between H. pylori test-and-treat compared with other strategies, but reevaluation of this model applying the assumptions made by Fendrick et al. confirmed their results, supporting test-andtreat (106). Ofman et al. concluded that test-and-treat was cost-saving; the cost of endoscopy would need to drop from $740 by 96% for an initial endoscopy strategy to become equally cost-effective in their model (107).
Spiegel et al. tested four different management strategies in decision analysis (59). This analysis was confined to patients younger than 45 yr of age presenting in primary care. They identified initial antisecretory therapy followed by endoscopy as the least costly therapy per patient treated. However, this rendered fewer patients symptom-free at 1 yr than strategies which combined empiric PPI therapy with test-and-treat. In this model, the most costly approach was test-and-treat followed by endoscopy for failures. This model also suggested that empirical PPI therapy became cost-effective if the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 12% or less in the dyspeptic population. Ladabaum et al. observed that as the likelihood of H. pylori (and ulcer disease) decreases below 20%, empiric PPI therapy starts to dominate test-and-treat in uninvestigated dyspepsia (60). Therefore, recommendations for the test-and-treat strategy may need to be modified when the prevalence of H. pylori infection is low, and we recommend on the basis of expert opinion considering a PPI in the setting of a H. pylori prevalence below 10% in the local community. A recent systematic review and economic analysis using generic/over-the-counter costs for PPIs found that they were cost-effective in the United States provided generic costs of a PPI were used in the analysis (108). Upper GI radiology was not a cost-effective alternative to H. pylori test-and-treat in another U.S. model (109).
Weighing the Options
A Cochrane review has been conducted of available management strategies for dyspepsia (70). They identified 18 published papers that had 20 comparisons included. In a pooled analysis, PPIs were significantly more effective than both H2 receptor antagonists and antacids in uninvestigated dyspepsia. A significant limitation of the studies is that they included broad groups of patients including those with obvious reflux disease. There was insufficient data to determine whether empiric prokinetic therapy was beneficial. They also concluded a H. pylori test-and-treat strategy may be as effective as endoscopy-based management with reduced costs because of the decreased numbers of patients that subsequently require EGD, but it was unclear whether test-and-treat compared to empirical acid suppression was equivalent or not because of the lack of data.
Endoscopy-Negative Dyspepsia (Functional Dyspepsia, Nonulcer Dyspepsia)
The management of endoscopy-proven functional dyspepsia is particularly challenging when initial antisecretory therapy and H. pylori eradication fails. Patients who fail to respond to simple measures need to have their diagnosis reconsidered. Dietary therapy has no established efficacy but may help some individuals. There are very limited data to support the use of herbal preparations, simethicone, and low-dose tricyclic antidepressants in functional dyspepsia. Bismuth, sucralfate, and antispasmodics are not established to be of benefit over placebo in functional dyspepsia. Hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy are supported by limited studies but cannot be generally recommended at the present time.
Grades of evidence:
Dietary modification: C
Hypnotherapy, Psychotherapy, Cognitive-behavioral therapy: B
Management of Documented Functional Dyspepsia
Once a diagnosis of functional dyspepsia is confirmed by a negative endoscopy, an empiric trial of therapy is commonly prescribed. However, the benefits of all therapies in this condition have been questioned.
Many patients do not require medication for dyspepsia after they have had reassurance and education. It is therefore important for the clinician to explain the meaning of the symptoms and their benign nature. Ascertaining why a patient with long-standing symptoms has presented on this occasion for care can be helpful, as this may identify those who have fears of an underlying serious disease or specific psychological distress that can be addressed. Potential precipitating factors in dyspepsia remain poorly defined. High-fat meals should be avoided; eating frequent and smaller meals throughout the day can sometimes be helpful. Specific foods that precipitate symptoms can be avoided. Food intolerance is uncommon, however, and food allergy very rare. Follow-up of the patient helps determine the natural history and allows further correction of faulty ideas and provides reassurance that can be very helpful in long-term management.
Antacids and sucralfate were not superior to placebo in functional dyspepsia based on a Cochrane review (98). However, a recent trial of simethicone has suggested potential benefit compared with placebo, and in another study equivalence with cisapride (110, 111). A Cochrane review of 8 trials of H2 receptor antagonists with 1,125 patients showed a relative risk reduction of 30% but the quality of the trials was generally poor (98). PPIs in this review also produced a relative risk reduction of approximately 30% and the quality of the trials was better (98). An economic model suggested that PPI therapy was cost-effective for functional dyspepsia in the United States (108). However, in a recent randomized trial of 453 patients from Hong Kong, the proportion of patients achieving complete relief of dyspepsia with lansoprazole 30 and 60 mg was 23% and 23%, respectively, compared with 30% on placebo (112). In contrast, another recent trial reported significant benefit with lansoprazole in a U.S. population (113). H. pylori status is unlikely to affect the therapeutic outcome of acid suppression therapy in functional dyspepsia (108). Large trials have failed to identify any difference in therapeutic outcome in H. pylori-positive versus negative patients, although Blum et al. did identify a superior response to PPI therapy in H. pylori-positive patients (114, 115).
Eradication of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia is controversial. Two high-quality meta-analyses have reached different conclusions but this may be likely explained by which trials were included and excluded in each systematic review (116, 117). Updating these meta-analyses now suggests that when all appropriate trials are considered, there is a small but significant therapeutic gain achieved with H. pylori eradication in functional dyspepsia, with the number needed to treat being 15 (118). While longer than 1-yr follow-up data are generally lacking, one 5-yr study suggests any benefit will persist (119). On the basis of the evidence, it is acceptable to offer H. pylori eradication therapy to infected patients with functional dyspepsia. The results also imply that offering H. pylori eradication therapy empirically to those with otherwise uninvestigated dyspepsia who are infected is reasonable even if ulcer disease is unlikely. Moreover, H. pylori eradication in those with documented functional dyspepsia may help prevent ulcer disease, although convincing evidence is not available. Hsu et al. observed during 1 yr of follow-up in a randomized controlled trial comprising 161 patients with functional dyspepsia, 2 patients in the H. pylori eradication treatment group (3%) and 6 patients in the placebo group (8%) developed peptic ulcers at repeat endoscopy (120).
The benefit of other treatments remains uncertain. A Cochrane review included 12 trials with prokinetics comprising 829 patients and showed that there was a relative risk reduction of 50%, compared with placebo, but most of the studies were with cisapride (98). Moreover, analysis of the studies suggested that publication bias at least partly explains the apparent benefits of prokinetic therapy. Prokinetics should be reserved for difficult cases as options in the United States are few and current agents (e.g., metoclopramide, erythromycin, tegaserod) have limited or poorly established efficacy, or side-effects are common (121). Routine use of gastric emptying studies is not recommended as improvements in gastric emptying do not correlate well with symptom improvement (31, 122). Drugs that relax the gastric fundus (e.g., tegaserod, cisapride, sumatriptan, buspirone, clonidine, some SSRIs, nitric oxide donors) may theoretically improve some dysmotility-like dyspepsia (e.g., early satiety) but adequate randomized controlled trials are lacking (123). Antidepressants are also of uncertain efficacy in functional dyspepsia but are often prescribed (121, 124). There are insufficient data on the use of tricyclic antidepressants such as amitryptyline in dyspepsia, but small studies have suggested benefit; however, the beneficial effect of low-dose amitryptyline seen in functional dyspepsia was not related to changes in perception of gastric distension (125). An increased tolerance to aversive visceral sensations may play a role in the therapeutic effect. There are limited data with the SSRIs. Psychological therapies are promising, particularly hypnotherapy, but more data are needed in larger patient populations before these can be recommended for routine use (126, 127). Other alternative therapies such as herbal preparations remain of unproven value (128, 129).
Additional Diagnoses and Testing in Refractory Cases
In patients with resistant symptoms, it is worth reevaluating the diagnosis.
Grade of evidence: C
Abdominal wall pain can be confused with functional dyspepsia; physical examination here is diagnostic (increased rather than reduced tenderness on tensing the abdominal wall muscles) (130). Biliary pain is characteristic and different from dyspepsia; ultrasound usually is unhelpful in the absence of typical biliary pain. Exclusion of atypical GERD with esophageal pH testing may alter management; at least 20% of patients with diagnosed functional dyspepsia clinically turn out to have GERD on esophageal pH studies (23–25, 131). Thus, even if a trial of PPI therapy has failed, pH testing may be considered off therapy, although the yield in this particular setting is not defined. Abdominal imaging to rule out chronic pancreatitis or small bowel pathology may be worth considering too but usually has a low yield; capsule endoscopy does not yet have an established role here. Gastric function testing (gastric emptying; gastric accommodation; response to a nutrient or water load) may not change management even if abnormalities are detected, although, if there is gastric dysaccomodation, trials of various drugs to relax the fundus may be worth trying empirically (123, 132). Questions about symptoms consistent with IBS may lead to a change in the diagnosis. Colonic evaluation may be considered even if there are no bowel disturbances because disease in the transverse colon or elsewhere can occasionally present with referred symptoms labeled dyspepsia. A drug history is helpful but aside from NSAIDs, drugs are rarely major contributors to chronic dyspepsia according to the available evidence (133). Diabetic radiculopathy can cause upper abdominal pain and EMG is diagnostic. Evaluation for referred pain from the chest or back should be considered in difficult cases. Finally, consider looking for rare metabolic or other causes of upper abdominal pain including thyroid disease, electrolyte abnormalities, hypercalcemia, heavy metals, acute intermittent porphyria, angioneurotic edema, familial mediterranean fever, chronic intestinal angina, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, liver disease (hepatoma, steatohepatitis), eosinophilic gastroenteritis, or connective tissue disease.
ACG – Practice Parameter Committee
Chair: Ronnie Fass, M.D.
Chair: William D. Chey, M.D.
Sub-Chair: Richard Sampliner, M.D.
Ece Mutlu M.D.
Nimish Vakil, M.D.
Miguel A. Valdovinos, M.D.
Benjamin Wong, M.D.
Liver and Pancreas
Chair: Daniel Pratt, M.D.
Sub-Chair: John Cunningham, M.D.
William Brugge, M.D.
William Carey, M.D.
Matthew Cohen, M.D.
David Bernstein, M.D.
Chair: Tim Koch, M.D.
Sub-Chair: Steven Edmunowicz M.D.
Alvin Zfass, M.D.
Darren Baroni, M.D.
Subbaramiah Sridhar, M.D.
Functional Bowel and GI Motility
Chair: Henry Parkman, M.D.
Sub-Chair: Lin Chang, M.D.
Charlene Prather, M.D.
Adil E. Bharucha, M.D.
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