Many people with PBC may never develop cirrhosis or liver failure. However, as can be seen in PSC, a late stage of PBC can be liver failure. For those people who reach the late stages of PBC, liver transplantation may be considered. The signs and symptoms of liver failure, which may or (depending on the specific aspects of the symptoms / disease) may not prompt consideration of any potential role for liver transplant, are the following:
- Persistent jaundice
- Fluid retention with swelling of hands, feet and abdomen
- Variceal bleeding (internal bleeding from swollen intestinal blood vessels, commonly in upper stomach and esophagus)
- Bone thinning and/or fractures
- Hepatic coma or encephalopathy
The survival for PBC patients after liver transplantation is excellent although some patients may develop recurrent PBC over time. With better understanding of the nature of PBC and its complications, many patients will have improved outcomes.